The present application is a division application of Ser. The nomenclature of iodine deficiency breast syndrome has a varied past with Reclus in France, Schimmellbusch in Germany and Bloodgood in the United States contributing to the confusion. Pathological nomenclature was popular for a time with the terms fibroepitheliosis, fibroadenosis and epithelial adenosis reported in the literature.
It is well-known that the iodine plays a key role in thyroid hormone production and the maintenance of thyroid gland epithelial integrity [ 1 ]. The thyroid gland accumulates iodine by a active transport mechanism mediated by sodium iodide symporter NIS [ 2 ], a glycoprotein expressed at the basolateral surface of the follicular cells [ 3 ]. In addition to thyroid, NIS also mediates iodide absorption by the stomach, salivary gland, and lactating mammary gland [ 26 ].
Of all the nations in the world, it is estimated that mostly people living in Japan where seaweed is a large part of the diet get enough iodine from dietary sources. Almost everyone else probably has some degree of iodine deficiency. Iodine deficiency is implicated in thyroid cancer and many other diseases.
Patients were cancer free at the time of radioactive iodine RAI treatment. Relative risks were compared across organ- or tissue-absorbed dose in grays [to convert to the conventional unit rad, multiply by ]. Solid horizontal lines represent the relative risk reference value 1.
The incidence of breast cancer with distant involvement at diagnosis is increasing in young women, agepossibly at an accelerating rate, as previously demonstrated by Johnson et al. Understanding the causes for these changes in cancer demographics is particularly important in view of the young age of these women, as well as the poor survival rate for women with distant metastatic breast disease. There have been explanations proposed in several letters, including vaccination 2advanced-age at first pregnancy 3 as well as folate supplementation 4however these explanations have not been particularly satisfying.
Abstract Iodine is an essential element in human physiology. Its role in thyroid function is well known and heavily weighted in the literature. Its putative role as an anticarcinogenic agent is just beginning to be widely appreciated.
Impact factor 3. International Journal of Biological Sciences. International Journal of Medical Sciences.
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A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are female predominant with a similar postmenopausal peak incidence.
Iodine is a critically overlooked nutrient that could play a crucial preventative and treatment role in many diseases, especially of the breast. Unfortunately, iodine deficiency is a growing concern, even in developed countries. According to an update on the popular Breast Cancer Choices website, the therapeutic use of iodine for treating breast cancer is proving to be very effective. Furthermore it was reported that after 50 years of research and cross examination, abnormal iodine metabolism needs to be considered as a causative factor in many of our common ailments.